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Summer 2022 weather

Early indications


15/04/2022

What does summer 2022 have in store? The TWO summer forecast will be issued in late May but before then we will issue two updates taking a look at what the latest data is suggesting. 

Summer cloudscape overlooking Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire

Summer cloudscape overlooking Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire

Seasonal model overview

A range of seasonal models are available. However it is important to remember that their skill level (accuracy) for the UK is low.

Model Temperature Rain
GloSea (UKM) Above average No strong signal
ECM Above average Mostly above average
ECC Above average Below average
Meteo France Above average Below average
DWD Above average  Mostly below average
CS3 Above average Below in the south
JMA Above average Below average in the north
CMCC Above average Below average in the south
CFSv2 Above average Mostly above average
Table 1: Forecast temperature and precipitation anomalies, June, July and August

 

The notable things at this stage are:

i) All of the models seem to favour above average temperatures in most of the UK when taken over the 3 month summer period as a whole

ii) As is usually the case the rain signal is less clear. On balance there are suggestions of it being drier than average in the south

Anomalies masking the outcome

The anomalies in the table may not be telling the complete story. They are for the meteorological summer as a whole and there is a chance that extreme swings are cancelling each other out to an extent. For example, in recent summers there have been several intense bursts of heat despite rather mixed conditions dominating. 

ENSO conditions

The state of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has significant impact on temperature and rainfall patterns around the globe. Nonetheless its link to the UK summer is thought to be weak.

Latest forecasts suggest a 59% chance of La Nina conditions through June - August. Analysis suggests that La Nina summers have a tendency to produce drier than average summers in the mid-Atlantic. Despite that, there isn't a clear pattern for the UK.

Atlantic Hurricane season

Several forecasts for the 2022 hurricane season have been issued. They are suggesting above average levels of activity. 

Colorado State University is predicting 19 named storms of which 9 become hurricanes.

Accuweather is predicting 16 to 20 named storms of which 6 to 8 become hurricanes. 

The predictions possibly favour an increased chance of settled weather in the UK during the late summer.

Summer sun
Can we expect a lot of weather like this?

Recent summers

Perhaps the defining characteristic of recent summers in the UK has been the increased frequency of hot spells. Maximum temperatures for recent years:

2021: 32.2C, 21st July, Heathrow, Middlesex

2020: 37.8C, 31st July, Heathrow, Middlesex

2019: 38.7C, 25th July, Cambridge Botanical Gardens

2018: 35.3C, 26th July, Fathersham, Kent

2017: 34,5C, 21st June, Heathrow, Middlesex

2016, 34.4C, 13th September, Gravesend, Kent (Note: This was in the meteorological autumn)

2015, 36.7, 1st July, Heathrow, Middlesex

The last time 30C wasn't reached in the UK was in 1993. In that year the top temperature recorded was 29.7C in East Bergholt, Suffolk. In more recent times, 2007 and 2008 brought 30.1C and 30.2C respectively.

Therefore, recent climatology favours hot spells. There has also been a  tendency for months to be more likely to be above the Central England Temperature (CET) average than below it. However, the highest temperature recorded during summer 2021 was 32.2C which is significantly lower than the six years preceding it.  

Summary

1) Seasonal models suggest above average temperatures taken over the June, July and August period as a whole. There is a tentative signal for rainfall amounts to be below the average in the south. 

2) La Nina conditions are not expected to favour a particular outcome.

3) The latest 2022 Atlantic Hurricane season forecasts perhaps point to an increased chance of settled weather relative to the average in the late summer.

4) Recent climatology continues to favour above average temperatures and an increased chance of hot spells.

At this stage a warmer than average summer is favoured. Lower confidence is attached to rainfall levels, but the possibility of it being drier than average is weakly favoured  in the southern half of the UK.

The next update will be issued in mid-May.

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