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Online Roger Parsons  
#301 Posted : 07 July 2019 14:21:00(UTC)
Roger Parsons

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Location: Lincolnshire

Originally Posted by: Northern Sky Go to Quoted Post

Some of you may have heard of Prof Dave Goulson.

NS - Meant to add:

I wonder if you or any other TWO members have read his book, The Garden Jungle: or Gardening to Save the Planet?

I would expect it to be good.

Roger

RogerP

West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire

No county (Lincolnshire) has better churches and worse houses. The poorer sort of people wash their clothes with hog's dung, and burn dried cow's dung for want of better fuel; whence comes the Lincolnshire proverb: "Where the hogs shite soap and the cows shite fire".

Curiosities of Great Britain (c.1780)

Offline Bertwhistle  
#302 Posted : 07 July 2019 15:52:55(UTC)
Bertwhistle

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Location: Central Southern England

Originally Posted by: Roger Parsons Go to Quoted Post

 

Hello Bert - an intriguing question with several possible answers including bee diseases and plant toxicity. My comments have honey bees in mind, but some may apply to other bee species.

Acarine disease can produce the kind of symptoms you describe, and so can bee viruses transmitted by the Varroa mite.

http://www.nationalbeeunit.com/index.cfm?pageid=192

http://www.nationalbeeunit.com/index.cfm?pageid=275

However your bees may have been feeding on on a plant with toxic nectar. See information on plant toxicity at the end of this piece.

https://www.countryfile.com/wildlife/insects-invertebrates/bee-guide-how-to-identify-where-to-spot-and-how-to-attract-bees-to-your-garden/

Also see:

https://www.kew.org/read-and-watch/do-lime-trees-kill-bees

Hot dry spells soon affect bee thirst, and bee-friendly drinkers are worth a try - a shallow dish of water with a piece of wet sacking to land on might be appreciated. Keep topping it up. Rain water preferable.

Roger

I take note of all these points Roger- and am willing to try everything in our garden that will help. I feel a sort of- this sounds melodramatic- darkness inside at the moment. 

Bertie, Itchen Valley.

Remember Finlake!

Offline Bertwhistle  
#303 Posted : 07 July 2019 16:00:51(UTC)
Bertwhistle

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Location: Central Southern England

Originally Posted by: Devonian Go to Quoted Post

 

Our wildflower meadow was full of dead, moribund, bumble bees* after the cold torrential rains of early June - there must have been thousand across the field so affected. Even after the rain stopped several days later, the BBs there lacked vigor. BB Numbers don't seem to have recovered, the lanes are quiet, the garden similar.

I wonder if some BB nests got flooded. Other possibilities do included those Roger mentions plus the general effect of decades of insecticide use and something major we can't talk about.

And what else has happened this year? Well, I remember reading more farmers have been given derogations to use powerful insecticides...

*its not clear if you mean BBs, HBs or just bees in general.

Quite general Dev, but mostly the little solitary bees, of which until this year we have had several species busy in the garden. Seen one - yes, just one, this month. HBs too have declined massively- these frequent our cedum, oregano, and lavender plants and are almost absent this year. HBs are the ones behaving oddly. BBs seem down, but not as much as the others. Courgettes etc still being pollinated regularly by these.

Winchester Diocese chose bees as its Year 6 Leavers' theme this summer. Marvellous ceremony and the Bishop really convinced me it mattered to him. Hopefully the next generation won't be left in the wind wondering what that creature was that everyone was banging on about.

Bertie, Itchen Valley.

Remember Finlake!

Online Devonian  
#304 Posted : 07 July 2019 17:41:03(UTC)
Devonian

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Originally Posted by: Northern Sky Go to Quoted Post

Some of you may have heard of Prof Dave Goulson. Here's an article by him on pesticides and Brexit  - bit controversial maybe should leave it for the Brexit thread 

https://nurturing-nature.co.uk/bumblebees-and-their-ecology/will-the-uk-retain-the-neonicotinoid-moratorium-post-brexit-by-prof-dave-goulson/

"Like Brexit or not, it provides a golden opportunity, freeing British farming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and making it possible to steer it away from industrial, chemical farming towards more sustainable methods. If we do not, we will lose bees and much else of our wildlife for ever."

Well, yes, because you tempt replies...I will resist, this time.

"In a 52-48 referendum this would be unfinished business by a long way"

Nigel Farage, Daily Mirror, 16/5/2016

"I think the mistake the government made - led by Theresa May - from the start was to try and claim that a country that had voted 17 million to leave the EU, 16 million to stay, wanted a 100% Brexit"

Osborne, 22/12/18.

Online Roger Parsons  
#305 Posted : 07 July 2019 17:48:10(UTC)
Roger Parsons

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Originally Posted by: Bertwhistle Go to Quoted Post

 I take note of all these points Roger - and am willing to try everything in our garden that will help. I feel a sort of- this sounds melodramatic- darkness inside at the moment. 

One point I have forgotten, [but I bet you haven't, Bert,] is the natural "background" rhythm of plant and animal populations as they wax and wane from year to year. This often confounds our efforts to identify causes of fluctuations. As you mention solitary bees I will ask you a question. What have you made of the numbers of bee flies you have observed this year?

[You will know why I am asking - the bee-fly is a brood parasite of solitary bees - a sort of cuckoo.]

Roger

 

RogerP

West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire

No county (Lincolnshire) has better churches and worse houses. The poorer sort of people wash their clothes with hog's dung, and burn dried cow's dung for want of better fuel; whence comes the Lincolnshire proverb: "Where the hogs shite soap and the cows shite fire".

Curiosities of Great Britain (c.1780)

Online Devonian  
#306 Posted : 07 July 2019 17:58:45(UTC)
Devonian

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Location: East Dartmoor

Originally Posted by: Bertwhistle Go to Quoted Post

 

Quite general Dev, but mostly the little solitary bees, of which until this year we have had several species busy in the garden. Seen one - yes, just one, this month. HBs too have declined massively- these frequent our cedum, oregano, and lavender plants and are almost absent this year. HBs are the ones behaving oddly. BBs seem down, but not as much as the others. Courgettes etc still being pollinated regularly by these.

Winchester Diocese chose bees as its Year 6 Leavers' theme this summer. Marvellous ceremony and the Bishop really convinced me it mattered to him. Hopefully the next generation won't be left in the wind wondering what that creature was that everyone was banging on about.

Change to land use is another problem. As I've said before, it's astonishing to look into a well run cereal field - there is NOTHING but the crop present. It's a big change in my lifetime (and there was a lot of change post war too (hedge removal, mechanisation, agrichemicals)) and yes, we had all those changes fourty years ago but weedkillers didn't kill everything, the field were not utterly precise, the machinery so modern not a grain escaped it's grasp...

But, why is insect decline (apparently) a world wide problem though? Well, several things are going on world wide and, at root, they are our doing.

Will the next generation face a more degraded planet? Yes, I think they will, because most human don't so much not care as not know - ignorance and people getting on with human life (with all its difficulties for so many billions of us) being the problem. Look at people, they associate mostly with people, do 'peopley' things, live with people, move to cities from rural areas, like technology, like using the power fuels provide, like convenience, like transport, like frivolous things. I've read posts here about people who hate insects, in my local town many lawns are (isn't this telling???) plastic and at the first sign of ant people pile ant powder on the poor things. Plastic is everywhere, yet near my work people still sling plastic bottles in hedges....The air, even that is changed - enough said of that...

MY hope is reserves and that the few percent of us who care deeply dig into our pockets and do it ourselves. We need to get together and buy up bits of this planet. If I win the Euro lottery that's what I'll do but has anyone who won millions every done anything for the environment as opposed to people? I can't recall such yet you can't have the people without the environment.

I don't like to sound depressing but I think I'm being realistic. XR and people like that, great, but, they/we're trapped, trapped like those who voted for (gulp) brexit, seeking change but not feeling able to get it.

The 'hope'? That things get bad enough most people notice. I think that might yet happen.

I just also hope four isn't reading all this

 

"In a 52-48 referendum this would be unfinished business by a long way"

Nigel Farage, Daily Mirror, 16/5/2016

"I think the mistake the government made - led by Theresa May - from the start was to try and claim that a country that had voted 17 million to leave the EU, 16 million to stay, wanted a 100% Brexit"

Osborne, 22/12/18.

Online Roger Parsons  
#307 Posted : 08 July 2019 06:18:02(UTC)
Roger Parsons

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Location: Lincolnshire

Originally Posted by: Devonian Go to Quoted Post

Change to land use is another problem.

Habitat change/degradation/loss is a world-wide "backdrop" to species decline or loss, Dev. However it probably does not account for sudden acute/unusual observations such as the honeybee morbidity and deaths reported by Bert. These are much more likely to be related to one or more of the "natural" causes I listed, or to some kind of chemical event of human origin.

Perhaps the greatest underlying issues are human ignorance of and human indifference to the natural world. Seemingly most folks neither know nor care.

As far as insects are concerned, this paper from the NHM has a good take on the problem. 'There is just not the space for insects to live anymore.'

https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/news/2019/february/the-world-s-insect-populations-are-plummeting-everywhere-we-look.html

Roger

RogerP

West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire

No county (Lincolnshire) has better churches and worse houses. The poorer sort of people wash their clothes with hog's dung, and burn dried cow's dung for want of better fuel; whence comes the Lincolnshire proverb: "Where the hogs shite soap and the cows shite fire".

Curiosities of Great Britain (c.1780)

Online Devonian  
#308 Posted : 08 July 2019 06:30:46(UTC)
Devonian

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Originally Posted by: Roger Parsons Go to Quoted Post

 

Habitat change/degradation/loss is a world-wide "backdrop" to species decline or loss, Dev. However it probably does not account for sudden acute/unusual observations such as the honeybee morbidity and deaths reported by Bert. These are much more likely to be related to one or more of the "natural" causes I listed, or to some kind of chemical event of human origin.

Perhaps the greatest underlying issues are human ignorance of and human indifference to the natural world. Seemingly most folks neither know nor care.

As far as insects are concerned, this paper from the NHM has a good take on the problem. 'There is just not the space for insects to live anymore.'

https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/news/2019/february/the-world-s-insect-populations-are-plummeting-everywhere-we-look.html

Roger

Agree, and agree with your highlight, though if insects were as numerous as they should be perhaps a localised natural disaster (as is perhaps what happened here and in Berts area) wouldn't be noticed so much.

"In a 52-48 referendum this would be unfinished business by a long way"

Nigel Farage, Daily Mirror, 16/5/2016

"I think the mistake the government made - led by Theresa May - from the start was to try and claim that a country that had voted 17 million to leave the EU, 16 million to stay, wanted a 100% Brexit"

Osborne, 22/12/18.

Offline Northern Sky  
#309 Posted : 08 July 2019 07:32:28(UTC)
Northern Sky

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Originally Posted by: Roger Parsons Go to Quoted Post

 

A nice quotation, NS. Dave Goulson is a good chap.

It prompts me to ask you a question of my own - which I shall leave you and others to have a go at. No clues!

"How can it make biological sense for any plant to produce a nectar which is toxic to pollinators?"

Roger

I've been thinking about this Roger and the answer is I don't know 

Unless it was nectar that was toxic to only some?

Btw, yes I've seen Dave Goulson's new book and will definitely be purchasing it!

Online Roger Parsons  
#310 Posted : 08 July 2019 07:44:30(UTC)
Roger Parsons

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Originally Posted by: Northern Sky Go to Quoted Post

I've been thinking about this Roger and the answer is I don't know 

Unless it was nectar that was toxic to only some?

Btw, yes I've seen Dave Goulson's new book and will definitely be purchasing it!

I think you have put your finger on it NS.

Presumably the "preferred" [obligative] pollinator[s] are not affected by the toxicity.

One take on this theory:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/12/141211210006.htm

 

I have just been re-reading this thread and we have certainly covered some interesting stuff!

Roger

 

RogerP

West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire

No county (Lincolnshire) has better churches and worse houses. The poorer sort of people wash their clothes with hog's dung, and burn dried cow's dung for want of better fuel; whence comes the Lincolnshire proverb: "Where the hogs shite soap and the cows shite fire".

Curiosities of Great Britain (c.1780)

Offline Northern Sky  
#311 Posted : 08 July 2019 08:28:38(UTC)
Northern Sky

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We certainly have covered some interesting stuff Roger. 

I've always loved all nature and wildlife but over the last year or so I've become increasingly interested and in fact, fascinated by insects. One of my very favourite things to do is sit and look into the sea/rockpools and see what turns up - usually on the west coast of Scotland and usually ends up with me having to be finally dragged away by wife or children to go and do something else! I'm starting to find that I get a very similar pleasure sitting in the garden and watching what insects turn up. 

I'm also lucky enough to have a job where I am responsible for outdoor learning at my school. This means I have lots of say in what we do with large parts of our outside areas. Along with the local Ranger we have created a wildlife area where we have planted a copse of native trees, an orchard and a hedgerow. We also have a small piece of land (only a few trees) of mature ash and birch and next to that is a bank of earth which was piled up when we made a bike track. This year it has been covered in mallow, campion, thistle and many other plants and flowers. It's a little oasis and there, like my garden at home I do what I can. The more I read about insect decline the more I think it is one of the biggest issues we face. 

Reading 'Wilding' about the project at Knepp farm shows how it is possible to turn it around. I just hope more people take notice before it's too late.

Offline Bertwhistle  
#312 Posted : 08 July 2019 18:37:41(UTC)
Bertwhistle

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Originally Posted by: Roger Parsons Go to Quoted Post

 

One point I have forgotten, [but I bet you haven't, Bert,] is the natural "background" rhythm of plant and animal populations as they wax and wane from year to year. This often confounds our efforts to identify causes of fluctuations. As you mention solitary bees I will ask you a question. What have you made of the numbers of bee flies you have observed this year?

[You will know why I am asking - the bee-fly is a brood parasite of solitary bees - a sort of cuckoo.]

Roger

 

Not excessive but noticeably more than dearth years prior to the warm Easter spell; we had a stunning display of woodland bank flowers including primroses and pulmonaria which they seem to frequent. Interesting thought.

Bertie, Itchen Valley.

Remember Finlake!

Online Roger Parsons  
#313 Posted : 10 July 2019 12:02:46(UTC)
Roger Parsons

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Thanks Bert - an interesting Bee Fly observation.

I have just had an email from NHBS to offer Dave Goulson's The Garden Jungle [hardback] at a discount and signed copies are available.

https://www.nhbs.com/the-garden-jungle-book

I think I'll wait for the paperback and perhaps a further discount!

Roger

RogerP

West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire

No county (Lincolnshire) has better churches and worse houses. The poorer sort of people wash their clothes with hog's dung, and burn dried cow's dung for want of better fuel; whence comes the Lincolnshire proverb: "Where the hogs shite soap and the cows shite fire".

Curiosities of Great Britain (c.1780)

Offline Bertwhistle  
#314 Posted : 10 July 2019 18:27:20(UTC)
Bertwhistle

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Originally Posted by: Roger Parsons Go to Quoted Post
Thanks Bert - an interesting Bee Fly observation.

I have just had an email from NHBS to offer Dave Goulson's The Garden Jungle [hardback] at a discount and signed copies are available.
https://www.nhbs.com/the-garden-jungle-book

I think I'll wait for the paperback and perhaps a further discount!

Roger

I am really concerned though Roger- just watering one of the gardens- a huge lavender now flowering beautifully, front of house with direct evening sunshine, temperature not far below 23C; bees: zero. First year of this. Have we reached a local tipping point? Or can you console me with words such as 'they're all in the hive tending the queen'?

Bertie, Itchen Valley.

Remember Finlake!

Online Roger Parsons  
#315 Posted : 10 July 2019 20:28:29(UTC)
Roger Parsons

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Originally Posted by: Bertwhistle Go to Quoted Post

 I am really concerned though Roger- just watering one of the gardens- a huge lavender now flowering beautifully, front of house with direct evening sunshine, temperature not far below 23C; bees: zero. First year of this. Have we reached a local tipping point? Or can you console me with words such as 'they're all in the hive tending the queen'?

That's about the size of it, Bert. At 6pm our lavender - in the shade by then - was still being worked by honeybees, several species of bumblebee, hoverflies and, I am delighted to say, a Hummingbird Hawkmoth. [A sparrow made a lunge at that, but without success.] It had started to cool down by 6.30pm and the honeybees gradually turned in for the night. Honeybees operate between 13C and 37C and they need to get home before temperatures start to approach the lower end of that. They don't want to get caught out, below 12C they cannot fly. Hefty, better-insulated Bumblebees can keep going at lower temperatures. Above 37C honeybees go on strike and their efforts go into controlling hive temperature. You will not be surprised that the temperature of the brood is maintained at 32°C - 35°C. That's enzymes for you!

You may be uncertain where your honeybees are coming from - and they could easily be 3 miles or more away from your lavender. They "know" they need to allow time to get home once the temperature starts to fall. Also - you may not know the position of their hives, and whether or not they were still in the sun. If shaded, things wind down a bit more quickly. Incoming bees stay put instead of making a final trip.

Here's a nice little scientific piece about honeybee thermoregulation and hive monitors.

https://www.arnia.co.uk/temperature-and-thermoregulation-in-the-beehive/

Goes to show that insects belong on the Weather forum!

Roger

 

 

 

Edited by user 10 July 2019 21:12:28(UTC)  | Reason: typo

RogerP

West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire

No county (Lincolnshire) has better churches and worse houses. The poorer sort of people wash their clothes with hog's dung, and burn dried cow's dung for want of better fuel; whence comes the Lincolnshire proverb: "Where the hogs shite soap and the cows shite fire".

Curiosities of Great Britain (c.1780)

Offline Bertwhistle  
#316 Posted : 11 July 2019 19:15:28(UTC)
Bertwhistle

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Location: Central Southern England

Oddly, eleven honeybees and various other insects on the lavender this evening. This needs monitoring! (music from Mission Impossible please)

Bertie, Itchen Valley.

Remember Finlake!

Online Devonian  
#317 Posted : 11 July 2019 19:24:14(UTC)
Devonian

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Originally Posted by: Roger Parsons Go to Quoted Post

 

That's about the size of it, Bert. At 6pm our lavender - in the shade by then - was still being worked by honeybees, several species of bumblebee, hoverflies and, I am delighted to say, a Hummingbird Hawkmoth. [A sparrow made a lunge at that, but without success.] It had started to cool down by 6.30pm and the honeybees gradually turned in for the night. Honeybees operate between 13C and 37C and they need to get home before temperatures start to approach the lower end of that. They don't want to get caught out, below 12C they cannot fly. Hefty, better-insulated Bumblebees can keep going at lower temperatures. Above 37C honeybees go on strike and their efforts go into controlling hive temperature. You will not be surprised that the temperature of the brood is maintained at 32°C - 35°C. That's enzymes for you!

You may be uncertain where your honeybees are coming from - and they could easily be 3 miles or more away from your lavender. They "know" they need to allow time to get home once the temperature starts to fall. Also - you may not know the position of their hives, and whether or not they were still in the sun. If shaded, things wind down a bit more quickly. Incoming bees stay put instead of making a final trip.

Here's a nice little scientific piece about honeybee thermoregulation and hive monitors.

https://www.arnia.co.uk/temperature-and-thermoregulation-in-the-beehive/

Goes to show that insects belong on the Weather forum!

Roger

 

 

 

We had a cold very wet spell around the 5-15th of June - I do wonder if that did a lot of harm to BBs. I'm unclear what the length of time from egg to worker is in BBs but a quick search suggests to me it's about a month, so rather longer than with honey bees? But (getting to my point...) perhaps the next few week might see more BBs as colones recover form the wet cold spell? Otoh, bramble is past peak flowing and you don't get honey bee honey flows after that point - discounting heather of course....

"In a 52-48 referendum this would be unfinished business by a long way"

Nigel Farage, Daily Mirror, 16/5/2016

"I think the mistake the government made - led by Theresa May - from the start was to try and claim that a country that had voted 17 million to leave the EU, 16 million to stay, wanted a 100% Brexit"

Osborne, 22/12/18.

Offline Bertwhistle  
#318 Posted : 13 July 2019 16:39:19(UTC)
Bertwhistle

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Posts: 5,608
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Counted over 40 honeybees on lavender, marjoram, knapweed & sage before realising they were moving about so busily I might be double counting; notwithstanding, a far cry from a couple of days ago. A few BBs, solitaries, & hoverflies & solitary wasps too.

Conversely, at 22C in bright spells over a chalk downland rich with flora ( mignonette, knapweed, scabious, lady's bedstraw, wild carrot, etc etc) there should have been dancing clouds of butterflies this afternoon. Two browns, possibly meadow; a white- not marbled; a red admiral on an old buddleia; this over several hectares. A notice was placed regarding herbicide (wild parsnip is very invasive but not an outsider; there is no Oxford ragwort that I can see). Can this herbicide act as a stealth insecticide- anyone know? If so, Shawford & Compton Parish Council need to review their practice! Inform me before I charge in on the pow wow fire.

Bertie, Itchen Valley.

Remember Finlake!

Online Roger Parsons  
#319 Posted : 13 July 2019 18:18:32(UTC)
Roger Parsons

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Originally Posted by: Bertwhistle Go to Quoted Post

Counted over 40 honeybees on lavender, marjoram, knapweed & sage before realising they were moving about so busily I might be double counting; notwithstanding, a far cry from a couple of days ago. A few BBs, solitaries, & hoverflies & solitary wasps too.

Conversely, at 22C in bright spells over a chalk downland rich with flora ( mignonette, knapweed, scabious, lady's bedstraw, wild carrot, etc etc) there should have been dancing clouds of butterflies this afternoon. Two browns, possibly meadow; a white- not marbled; a red admiral on an old buddleia; this over several hectares. A notice was placed regarding herbicide (wild parsnip is very invasive but not an outsider; there is no Oxford ragwort that I can see). Can this herbicide act as a stealth insecticide- anyone know? If so, Shawford & Compton Parish Council need to review their practice! Inform me before I charge in on the pow wow fire.

Dave Goulson has written a paper on this, Bert. A bit heavy going but worth a look. It mainly focuses on insecticides as you might expect. I'll see if I can find anything on herbicides - and there is always the possibility of synergistic effects between different chemical treatments. Goulson rightly refers to sub-lethal effects, as you don't have to kill a creature in order to mess it up. In my early scientific endeavours I was researching sub-lethal effects of the emulsifiers being used to treat oil spills - a bit of a parallel - as you can be doing harm trying to do something good! Instead of LD 50s I was observing/recording behaviour of molluscs at low concentration of industrial detergents.

Good reading:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6054864/

 

Update - I have located some information about glyphosate affecting bees with some more Dave Goulson input: Quote:

"So if it weren't for insects, cowpats and dead bodies would build up in the landscape, which sounds pretty unpleasant," Goulson said. "We should be really concerned over the decline in bees. People should be jumping up and down and concerned over this, because these insects do so much. Really, ecosystems will collapse, and we cannot survive without insects. People may not like insects, often they don't, but they ought to appreciate that insects do an awful lot for us."

See:

https://www.dw.com/en/study-shows-glyphosate-may-be-killing-honeybees/a-45618950-0

 

Roger

 

Edited by user 13 July 2019 18:23:43(UTC)  | Reason: + addition

RogerP

West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire

No county (Lincolnshire) has better churches and worse houses. The poorer sort of people wash their clothes with hog's dung, and burn dried cow's dung for want of better fuel; whence comes the Lincolnshire proverb: "Where the hogs shite soap and the cows shite fire".

Curiosities of Great Britain (c.1780)

Offline Retron  
#320 Posted : 14 July 2019 04:54:10(UTC)
Retron

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Joined: 05/04/2006(UTC)
Posts: 23,820
Location: Leysdown-on-Sea

Originally Posted by: Bertwhistle Go to Quoted Post

Conversely, at 22C in bright spells over a chalk downland rich with flora ( mignonette, knapweed, scabious, lady's bedstraw, wild carrot, etc etc) there should have been dancing clouds of butterflies this afternoon. Two browns, possibly meadow; a white- not marbled; a red admiral on an old buddleia; this over several hectares.

That does sound rather barren - while I was mowing the lawn yesterday (all 1500 sq ft of it, which in the grand scheme of things is nothing), I saw three butterflies: a cabbage white (as my mum called them) and a couple of brown ones. I haven't seen any red admirals around here in ages, but they used to be common.

Incidentally I saw something quite unwelcome yesterday - I followed a pick-up truck home from town. It had a couple of rolls of fake grass on it and was in fact a company selling and installing fake grass. Business must be good if they can afford a pickup truck just for that!

On the back, several feet in front of me, was written: "No mowing! No weeding! No feeding!". Notwithstanding the fact that aside from the odd thistle I've never weeded the lawn and I've certainly never fed it, they could have added more... "No wildlife! No flood prevention! No good!"

 

Edited by user 14 July 2019 05:10:27(UTC)  | Reason: Not specified

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